from the term citizen, referring to a citizen of the Internet,
or someone who uses networked resources. The term connotes civic
responsibility and participation.
WWW Browser and the name of a company. The Netscape (tm)
browser was originally based on the Mosaic program developed
at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA).
Netscape has grown in features rapidly and is widely recognized
as the best and most popular web browser. Netscape corporation
also produces web server software.
Netscape provided major improvements in speed and interface over
other browsers, and has also engendered debate by creating new
elements for the HTML language used by Web pages -- but
the Netscape extensions to HTML are not universally supported.
The main author of Netscape, Mark Andreessen, was hired away from
the NCSA by Jim Clark, and they founded a company called Mosaic
Communications and soon changed the name to Netscape Communications
Also: Browser , Mosaic , Server , WWW
time you connect 2 or more computers together so that they can
share resources, you have a computer network. Connect 2 or more
networks together and you have an internet.
Also: internet , Internet , Intranet
name for discussion groups on USENET.
Information Center) -- Generally, any office that handles information
for a network. The most famous of these on the Internet is the
InterNIC, which is where new domain names are registered.
single computer connected to a network.
Also: Network , Internet ,
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method used to move data around on the Internet. In packet
switching, all the data coming out of a machine is broken up into
chunks, each chunk has the address of where it came from and where
it is going. This enables chunks of data from many different sources
to co-mingle on the same lines, and be sorted and directed to
different routes by special machines along the way. This way many
people can use the same lines at the same time.
code used to gain access to a locked system. Good passwords contain
letters and non-letters and are not simple combinations such as
virtue7. A good password might be:
(usually small) piece of software that adds features to a larger
piece of software. Common examples are plug-ins for the Netscape®
browser and web server. Adobe Photoshop® also uses
The idea behind plug-in¹s is that a small piece of software is
loaded into memory by the larger program, adding a new feature,
and that users need only install the few plug-ins that they need,
out of a much larger pool of possibilities. Plug-ins are usually
created by people other than the publishers of the software the
plug-in works with.
of Presence, also Post Office Protocol) -- Two commonly used meanings:
Point of Presence and Post Office Protocol. A Point of Presence
usually means a city or location where a network can be connected
to, often with dial up phone lines. So if an Internet company
says they will soon have a POP in Belgrade, it means that they
will soon have a local phone number in Belgrade and/or a place
where leased lines can connect to their network. A second meaning,
Post Office Protocol refers to the way e-mail software such as
Eudora gets mail from a mail server. When you obtain a SLIP, PPP,
or shell account you almost always get a POP account with it,
and it is this POP account that you tell your e-mail software
to use to get your mail.
Also: SLIP , PPP
meanings. First and most generally, a place where information
goes into or out of a computer, or both. E.g. the serial port
on a personal computer is where a modem would be connected.
On the Internet port often refers to a number that is part of
a URL, appearing after a colon (:) right after the domain
name. Every service on an Internet server listens on
a particular port number on that server. Most services have standard
port numbers, e.g. Web servers normally listen on port 80. Services
can also listen on non-standard ports, in which case the port
number must be specified in a URL when accessing the server, so
you might see a URL of the form:
shows a gopher server running on a non-standard port (the standard
gopher port is 70).
Finally, port also refers to translating a piece of software to
bring it from one type of computer system to another, e.g. to
translate a Windows program so that is will run on a Macintosh.
Also: Domain Name , Server , URL
single message entered into a network communications system.
E.g. A single message posted to a newsgroup or message
to Point Protocol) -- Most well known as a protocol that allows
a computer to use a regular telephone line and a modem
to make TCP/IP connections and thus be really and truly
on the Internet.
Also: IP Number , Internet , SLIP , TCP/IP
Switched Telephone Network) -- The regular old-fashioned telephone
Office Protocol) An Internet protocol that enables a single user
to read e-mail from a mail server.
PoP--(Point of Presence) A site that has an array
of telecommunications equipment: modems, digital, leased lines
and Internet routers. An Internet access provider may operate
several regional PoPs to provide Internet connections within local
phone service areas. An alternative is for access providers to
employ virtual PoPs (virtual Points of Presence) in conjunction
with third party provider.
protocols--Computer rules that provide uniform
specifications so that computer hardware and operating systems
can communicate. It's similar to the way that mail, in countries
around the world, is addressed in the same basic format so that
postal workers know where to find the recipient's address, the
sender's return address and the postage stamp. Regardless of the
underlying language, the basic "protocols" remain the same.
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RFC (Request For Comments) -- The name
of the result and the process for creating a standard on the
Internet. New standards are proposed and published on
line, as a Request For Comments. The Internet Engineering Task
Force is a consensus-building body that facilitates discussion,
and eventually a new standard is established, but the reference
number/name for the standard retains the acronym RFC, e.g. the
official standard for e-mail is RFC 822.
special-purpose computer (or software package) that handles the
connection between 2 or more networks. Routers spend all
their time looking at the destination addresses of the packets
passing through them and deciding which route to send them on.
Also: Network , Packet Switching
chunk of information (often stored as a text file) that is used
by the SSL protocol to establish a secure connection.
Security Certificates contain information about who it belongs
to, who it was issued by, a unique serial number or other unique
identification, valid dates, and an encrypted ³fingerprint²
that can be used to verify the contents of the certificate.
In order for an SSL connection to be created both sides must
have a valid Security Certificate.
Also: Certificate Authority , SSL
computer, or a software package, that provides a specific kind
of service to client software running on other computers.
The term can refer to a particular piece of software, such as
a WWW server, or to the machine on which the software is
running, e.g.Our mail server is down today, that¹s why e-mail
isn¹t getting out. A single server machine could have several
different server software packages running on it, thus providing
many different servers to clients on the network.
Also: Client , Network
Line Internet Protocol) -- A standard for using a regular telephone
line (a serial line) and a modem to connect a computer
as a real Internet site. SLIP is gradually being replaced
Also: Internet , PPP
Multimegabit Data Service) -- A new standard for very high-speed
Mail Transport Protocol) -- The main protocol used to send electronic
mail on the Internet.
SMTP consists of a set of rules for how a program sending mail
and a program receiving mail should interact.
Almost all Internet email is sent and received by clients
and servers using SMTP, thus if one wanted to set up an
email server on the Internet one would look for email server software
that supports SMTP.
Also: Client , Server
Network Management Protocol) -- A set of standards for communication
with devices connected to a TCP/IP network. Examples of
these devices include routers, hubs, and switches.
A device is said to be ³SNMP compatible² if it can be monitored
and/or controlled using SNMP messages. SNMP messages are known
as ³PDU¹s² - Protocol Data Units.
Devices that are SNMP compatible contain SNMP ³agent² software
to receive, send, and act upon SNMP messages.
Software for managing devices via SNMP are available for every
kind of commonly used computer and are often bundled along with
the device they are designed to manage. Some SNMP software is
designed to handle a wide variety of devices.
Also: Network , Router
inappropriate attempt to use a mailing list, or USENET
or other networked communications facility as if it was a broadcast
medium (which it is not) by sending the same message to a large
number of people who didn¹t ask for it. The term probably comes
from a famous Monty Python skit which featured the word spam repeated
over and over. The term may also have come from someone¹s low
opinion of the food product with the same name, which is generally
perceived as a generic content-free waste of resources. (Spam
is a registered trademark of Hormel Corporation, for its processed
E.g. Mary spammed 50 USENET groups by posting the same message
Also: Maillist , USENET
Query Language) -- A specialized programming language for sending
queries to databases. Most industrial-strength and many smaller
database applications can be addressed using SQL. Each specific
application will have its own version of SQL implementing features
unique to that application, but all SQL-capable databases support
a common subset of SQL.
Sockets Layer) -- A protocol designed by Netscape Communications
to enable encrypted, authenticated communications across the Internet.
SSL used mostly (but not exclusively) in communications between
web browsers and web servers. URL¹s that
begin with ³https² indicate that an SSL connection will be used.
SSL provides 3 important things: Privacy, Authentication, and
In an SSL connection each side of the connection must have a Security
Certificate, which each side¹s software sends to the other.
Each side then encrypts what it sends using information from both
its own and the other side¹s Certificate, ensuring that only the
intended recipient can de-crypt it, and that the other side can
be sure the data came from the place it claims to have come from,
and that the message has not been tampered with.
Also: Browser , Server , Security Certificate , URL
Operator) -- Anyone responsible for the physical operations of
a computer system or network resource. A System Administrator
decides how often backups and maintenance should be performed
and the System Operator performs those tasks.
account--A software application that lets you use someone
else's Internet connection. It's not the same as having your own,
direct Internet connection, but pretty close. Instead, you connect
to a host computer and use the Internet through the host computer's
signature file--An ASCII text file, maintained
within e-mail programs, that contains a few lines of text for
your signature. The programs automatically attach the file to
your messages so you don't have to repeatedly type a closing.
SLIP/PPP--(Serial Line Internet Protocol/Point-to-Point
Protocol) The basic rules that enable PCS to connect, usually
by dial-up modem, directly to other computers that provide Internet
SMTP--(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) The basic
programming language behind the Internet's e-mail functions.
spam--Anything that nobody wants. Applies primarily
to commercial messages posted across a large number of Internet
Newsgroups, especially when the ad contains nothing of specific
interest to the posted Newsgroup.
leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 1,544,000
bits-per-second. At maximum theoretical capacity, a T-1
line could move a megabyte in less than 10 seconds. That
is still not fast enough for full-screen, full-motion video, for
which you need at least 10,000,000 bits-per-second. T-1 is the
fastest speed commonly used to connect networks to the
Also: 56k Line , Bandwidth , Bit , Byte , Ethernet , T-3
leased-line connection capable of carrying data at 44,736,000
bits-per-second. This is more than enough to do full-screen, full-motion
Also: 56k Line , Bandwidth , Bit , Byte , Ethernet , T-1
Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) -- This is the suite of protocols
that defines the Internet. Originally designed for the
UNIX operating system, TCP/IP software is now available
for every major kind of computer operating system. To be truly
on the Internet, your computer must have TCP/IP software.
Also: IP Number , Internet , UNIX
command and program used to login from one Internet
site to another. The telnet command/program gets you to the login:
prompt of another host.
Also: Byte , Kilobyte
device that allows you to send commands to a computer somewhere
else. At a minimum, this usually means a keyboard and a display
screen and some simple circuitry. Usually you will use terminal
software in a personal computer - the software pretends to be
(emulates) a physical terminal and allows you to type commands
to a computer somewhere else.
special purpose computer that has places to plug in many modems
on one side, and a connection to a LAN or host machine
on the other side. Thus the terminal server does the work of answering
the calls and passes the connections on to the appropriate node.
Most terminal servers can provide PPP or SLIP services
if connected to the Internet.
Also: LAN , Modem , Host , Node , PPP , SLIP
Ta For Now) -- A shorthand appended to a comment written in an
Also: IMHO , BTW
Internet backbone line that carries up to 1.536 million bits per
T3--An Internet line that carries up to 45 million
bits per second (45Mbps).
TA--See "Terminal Adapter."
TCP/IP--(Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol) The basic programming foundation that carries computer
messages around the globe via the Internet. Co-created by Vinton
G. Cerf, former president of the Internet Society, and Robert
Telnet--An Internet protocol that let you connect
your PC as a remote workstation to a host computer anywhere in
the world and to use that computer as if you were logged on locally.
You often have the ability to use all of the software and capability
on the host computer, even if it's a huge mainframe.
Terminal Adapter--An electronic device
that interfaces a PC with an Internet host computer via an ISDN
phone line. Often called "ISDN modems." However, because they
are digital, TAs are not modems at all. (See modem definition.)
computer operating system (the basic software running on a computer,
underneath things like word processors and spreadsheets). UNIX
is designed to be used by many people at the same time (it is
multi-user) and has TCP/IP built-in. It is the most common
operating system for servers on the Internet.
Resource Locator) -- The standard way to give the address of any
resource on the Internet that is part of the World Wide Web (WWW).
A URL looks like this:
The most common way to use a URL is to enter into a WWW browser
program, such as Netscape, or Lynx.
Also: Browser , WWW
world-wide system of discussion groups, with comments passed among
hundreds of thousands of machines. Not all USENET machines are
on the Internet, maybe half. USENET is completely decentralized,
with over 10,000 discussion areas, called newsgroups.
to Unix Encoding) -- A method for converting files from Binary
to ASCII (text) so that they can be sent across the Internet
Also: Binhex , MIME
URL--(Uniform Resource Locator) A critical term.
It's your main access channel to Internet sites. Equivalent to
having the phone number of a place you want to call. You constantly
will use URLs with your Internet software applications to
Usenet--Another name for Internet Newsgroups.
A distributed bulletin board system running on news servers, Unix
hosts, on-line services and bulletin board systems. Collectively,
all the users who post and read articles to newsgroups. The Usenet
is international in scope and is the largest decentralized information
utility. The Usenet includes government agencies, universities,
high schools, organizations of all sizes as well as millions of
stand-alone PCS. Some estimates we found say that there were 15,000
public newsgroups in 1996, collecting more than 100 megabytes
of data daily. But no one really knows.
(Very Easy Rodent Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives)
-- Developed at the University of Nevada, Veronica is a constantly
updated database of the names of almost every menu item on thousands
of gopher servers. The Veronica database can be searched
from most major gopher menus.
Area Information Servers) -- A commercial software package that
allows the indexing of huge quantities of information, and then
making those indices searchable across networks such as
the Internet. A prominent feature of WAIS is that the search
results are ranked (scored) according to how relevant the hits
are, and that subsequent searches can find more stuff like that
last batch and thus refine the search process.
Area Network) -- Any internet or network that covers
an area larger than a single building or campus.
Also: Internet, LAN , Network
Wide Web) -- Two meanings - First, loosely used: the whole constellation
of resources that can be accessed using Gopher, FTP, HTTP,
telnet, USENET, WAIS and some other tools. Second, the universe
of hypertext servers (HTTP servers) which are the servers
that allow text, graphics, sound files, etc. to be mixed together.
Also: Browser , FTP , Gopher , HTTP , Telnet , URL , WAIS
Area Information Servers) A distributed information retrieval
system that is sponsored by Apple Computer, Thinking Machines
and Dow Jones, Inc.. Users can locate documents using keyword
searches that return a list of documents, ranked according to
the frequency of occurrence of the search criteria.
WinVN--The most widely used stand-alone Windows-based
Internet Usenet newsgroup reader application. A powerful program
with many useful functions. Now that Netscape includes built-in
newsgroup functions, however, the use of WinVN is waning except
for users with advanced Newsgroup needs. In many ways, Netscape
is a better newsgroup reader for mainstream users.
WinWAIS--(Windows Wide Area Information Servers)
World Wide Web--(WWW) (W3) (the Web) An Internet
client-server distributed information and retrieval system based
upon the hypertext transfer protocol (http) that transfers hypertext
documents across a varied array of computer systems. The Web was
created by the CERN High-Energy Physics Laboratories in Geneva,
Switzerland in 1991. CERN boosted the Web into international prominence
on the Internet.
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